SPICE – various synthetic cannabinoid mixtures – also see the HU, JWH, and CP series


Withdrawal Phenomena and Dependence Syndrome After the Consumption of “Spice Gold”       (full – 2009)                            http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719097/?tool=pmcentrez


Spice: a never ending story?                   (abst – 2009)     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19589652


Synthetic cannabis mimic found in herbal incense                (news – 2009)



Pharmacological properties and dependence liabilities of synthetic cannabinoids (abst – 2010)

http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/20681249/abstract/%5BPharmacological_propertie  s_and_dependence_liabilities_of_synthetic_cannabinoids%5D_


Chemical analysis of synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs in herbal products. (abst – 2010)                                  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20117892


Spice drugs as a new trend: mode of action, identification and legislation.           (abst – 2010)



Monitoring of herbal mixtures potentially containing synthetic cannabinoids as psychoactive compounds.                                                       (abst – 2010)       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20857386


Inhaled Incense “K2” May Cause Heart Damage              (news – 2010)



The New Cannabinoids            (news – 2010)



Marijuana-based Drugs: Innovative Therapeutics or Designer Drugs of Abuse? (full – 2011)                                  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139381/?tool=pubmed


Beyond THC: The New Generation of Cannabinoid Designer Drugs.            (full – 2011)



Investigating a not-so-natural high.               (full – 2011)



Convulsions Associated with the Use of a Synthetic Cannabinoid Product.           (full – 2011)



Psychosis Associated With Synthetic Cannabinoid Agonists: A Case Series (letter – 2011)                                    http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/168/10/1119


The “new” marijuana.             (abst – 2011)       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21325097


Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of urine specimens for K2 (JWH-018) metabolites.                                                     (abst– 2011)      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21871158


The impact of changes in UK classification of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists in ‘Spice’.       (abst – 2011)                     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21482092


Synthetic cannabinoid use in New Zealand: a brief evaluation of inquiries to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre                                                            (abst – 2011)  http://journal.nzma.org.nz/journal/124-1347/5004/


 Severe toxicity following synthetic cannabinoid ingestion.               (abst – 2011)



The emergence and analysis of synthetic cannabinoids.                (abst – 2011)



Use of high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry to detect reported and previously unreported cannabinomimetics in “herbal high” products.                                                                  (abst – 2011)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20529459


“Spice” girls: synthetic cannabinoid intoxication.             (abst – 2011)



Three cases of “spice” exposure.               (abst – 2011)



“Legal highs” – new players in the old drama.             (abst – 2011)



Comparison of “herbal highs” composition.              (abst – 2011)



Synthetic cannabinoid use: a case series of adolescents.              (abst – 2011)



Myocardial Infarction Associated With Use of the Synthetic Cannabinoid K2. (abst – 2011)                                     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22065271


Cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids found in “Spice” products: the role of cannabinoid receptors and the caspase cascade in the NG 108-15 cell line.                                                        (abst – 2011)  http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/21907772/abstract/Cytotoxicity_of_synthetic_cann abinoids_found_in_%22Spice%22_products:_the_role_of_cannabinoid_receptors_and_the_caspase_cascad e_in_the_NG_108_15_cell_line_


High-performance sport, marijuana, and cannabimimetics.              (abst – 2011)



Effects of synthetic cannabinoids on electroencephalogram power spectra in rats. (abst – 2011)

http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/21640532/abstract/Effects_of_synthetic_cannabino   ids_on_electroencephalogram_power_spectra_in_rats_


Marijuana-based drugs: innovative therapeutics or designer drugs of abuse? (abst – 2011)

http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/21441120/abstract/Marijuana_based_drugs:_innov ative_therapeutics_or_designer_drugs_of_abuse


Detection of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal incense products.              (abst – 2011)



Synthetic cannabinoids–the new “legal high” drugs              (abst – 2011)



1 in 9 high school seniors using synthetic marijuana                 (news – 2011)



‘Fake Marijuana’ May Trigger Heart Trouble in Teens                (news – 2011)



Texas teens had heart attacks after smoking K2                (news – 2011)



Chemicals Used in “Spice” and “K2” Type Products Now Under Federal Control and Regulation            (news – 2011)                       http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/pressrel/pr030111.html


A Characterization of Synthetic Cannabinoid Exposures Reported to the National Poison Data System in 2010  (full – 2012)  http://www.annemergmed.com/webfiles/images/journals/ymem/FA-cohoyte.pdf


Acute mental disturbance caused by synthetic cannabinoid: a potential emerging substance of abuse in Hong Kong.                                                                       (full – 2012)  http://easap.asia/journal_file/1201_V22N1_p31.pdf


Characterization of In Vitro Metabolites of CP 47,497, a Synthetic Cannabinoid, in Human Liver Microsomes by LC-MS/MS.                                                                (full – 2012)  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02261.x/full


Using dopamine research to generate rational cannabinoid drug policy.             (full – 2012)



Synthetic legal intoxicating drugs: The emerging ‘incense’ and ‘bath salt’ phenomenon (full – 2012)  http://www.ccjm.org/content/79/4/258.abstract?ijkey=5c626a27db768c92b048d2d30e94a1a6421fe767&ke  ytype2=tf_ipsecsha


Acute Intoxication Caused by a Synthetic Cannabinoid in Two Adolescents (full – 2012)                                     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3470439/


A survey study to characterize use of Spice products (synthetic cannabinoids). (abst – 2012)                                     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21835562


Identification and structural characterization of the synthetic cannabinoid 3-(1- adamantoyl)-1-pentylindole as an additive in ‘herbal incense’. (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22359329


Headache after substance abuse: A diagnostic dilemma.              (abst – 2012)



Synthetic cannabinoid use: recognition and management.               (abst – 2012)




Detection and disposition of JWH-018 and JWH-073 in mice after exposure to “Magic Gold” smoke.      (abst – 2012)                           http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22405481


Spice drugs are more than harmless herbal blends: A review of the pharmacology and toxicology of synthetic cannabinoids.                                                     (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22561602


“Spice” and “k2” herbal highs: a case series and systematic review of the clinical effects and biopsychosocial implications of synthetic cannabinoid use in humans.                                              (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22691010


Detection and quantification of new designer drugs in human blood: part 1 – synthetic cannabinoids.       (abst – 2012)                           http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22593567


Spice: a new “legal” herbal mixture abused by young active duty military personnel. (abst – 2012)                                     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489593


Monohydroxylated metabolites of the K2 synthetic cannabinoid JWH-073 retain intermediate to high cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) affinity and exhibit neutral antagonist to partial agonist activity.          (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22266354


Analysis of 30 synthetic cannabinoids in serum by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after liquid-liquid extraction                                                       (abst – 2012)  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jms.3020/abstract


Simultaneous analysis of several synthetic cannabinoids, THC, CBD and CBN, in hair by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation and application to real samples.     (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22576873


Risky Recreation: Synthetic Cannabinoids Have Dangerous Effects.              (abst – 2012)



The spice in France: mixed herbs containing synthetic cannabinoids.                (abst – 2012)



Internet Highs-Seizures After Consumption of Synthetic Cannabinoids Purchased Online. (abst – 2012)                                   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22824736


Prevalence of Synthetic Cannabinoids in U.S. Athletes: Initial Findings. (abst – 2012)                                     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22872465


Synthetic cannabinoid and marijuana exposures reported to poison centers.   (abst – 2012)



Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry screening method for direct analysis of designer drugs, “spice” and stimulants in oral fluid.    (abst – 2012)                                                      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22939380


First European case of convulsions related to analytically confirmed use of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist AM-2201.                                                  (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936123


Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication: A Case Series and Review.               (abst – 2012)



Synthetic Cannabinoid and Cathinone Use Among US Soldiers.             (abst – 2012)



Adolescent Synthetic Cannabinoid Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers. (abst – 2012)                                        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023462


URB-754: A new class of designer drug and 12 synthetic cannabinoids detected in illegal products.       (abst – 2012)                    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23063179


DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs.                                       (abst – 2012)       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23092848


Identification, extraction and quantification of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 from commercially available herbal marijuana alternatives.                                                        (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23092847


Inhalation exposure to smoke from synthetic “marijuana” produces potent cannabimimetic effects in mice.                                                                       (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22776442


Determination of 22 synthetic cannabinoids in human hair by liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry.                                                         (abst – 2012)       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22835826


Synthetic cannabinoids in “spice-like” herbal blends: first appearance of JWH-307 and recurrence of JWH-018 on the German market.                                                           (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22748479


Patterns of synthetic cannabinoid use in Australia                  (abst – 2012)



Determination of naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-018) in mouse blood and tissue after inhalation exposure to ‘buzz’ smoke by HPLC/MS/MS

(abst – 2012)               http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bmc.2710/abstract



Synthetic cannabis and respiratory depression.                 (abst – 2012)



AKI Associated with Synthetic Cannabinoids: A Case Series.                (abst – 2012)



‘Hammer Head’ ‘incense’ blamed for seizure of youth in Le Roy             (news – 2012)



Synthetic marijuana was created strictly for research at Clemson (news – 2012)  http://www.timesnews.net/article/9042095/synthetic-marijuana-was-created-strictly-for-research-at-  clemson


Outbreak of kidney failure in Wyoming linked to “Spice”                 (news – 2012)



‘Spice’-y Party Drugs Can Lead to the ED               (news – 2012)



Wyoming kidney failure outbreak linked to designer ‘blueberry spice’ drug, aka ‘legal marijuana’  (news – 2012)  http://www.naturalnews.com/035181_spice_recreational_drugs_kidney_failure.html


Blueberry “spice” in Wyoming linked to cases of renal failure                  (news – 2012)



New health concerns about ‘fake pot’ in US              (news – 2012)



Tachycardia followed by bradycardia after smoking the synthetic cannabinoid “K9″ (news – 2012)                                       http://www.thepoisonreview.com/2012/05/22/tachycardia-followed-by-  bradycardia-after-smoking-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-k9/


Synthetic marijuana sent more than 11,400 people to ER in 2010                 (news – 2012)  http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-204_162-57557080/synthetic-marijuana-sent-more-than-11400-people-to-  er-in-2010/


Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Synthetic Cannabinoid Use — Multiple States, 2012          (report – 2013)                        http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6206a1.htm


Suicidal ideation and self-harm following K2 use.               (abst – 2013)



Synthetic cannabis: A comparison of patterns of use and effect profile with natural cannabis in a large global sample.                                                         (abst – 2013)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291209


Prevalence of new designer drugs and their legal status in Japan.               (abst – 2013)



Synthetic Cannabinoid Overdose in a 20-Year-Old Male US Soldier.            (abst – 2013)



Kronic hysteria: Exploring the intersection between Australian synthetic cannabis legislation, the media, and drug-related harm.                                                                           (abst – 2013)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23333135


Identification and Structural Elucidation of Four Cannabimimetic Compounds (RCS-4, AM-2201, JWH-203 and JWH-210) in Seized Products.                                                               (abst – 2013)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23339188


Symptoms, toxicities, and analytical results for a patient after smoking herbs containing the novel synthetic cannabinoid MAM-2201                                                    (abst – 2013)  http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11419-012-0166-1


Synthetic Marijuana Dangerous for Kidneys                   (news – 2013)



Study: Consumers Prefer Natural Cannabis Over Synthetic ‘Marijuana’ Herbal Products (news – 2013)

http://norml.org/news/2013/01/10/study-consumers-prefer-natural-cannabis-over-synthetic-marijuana-  herbal-products


Synthetic Marijuana Harms Kidneys of 16 Users, CDC Reports                      (news – 2013)


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