PREGNANCY/ PRENATAL EXPOSURE

also see PERINATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC INJURY, CHILDREN

 

Menstrual cramps, morning sickness and labour pain                      (article – undated)

http://www.ukcia.org/medical/menstrualcrampsmorningsicknessandlabourpain.php

 

Hemp Packs in Powerful Source of Preconception Nutrition                     (article – undated)  http://manitobaharvest.com/articles_studies/3812/Hemp-Packs-in-Powerful-Source-of-Preconception-  Nutrition.html

 

Effects of Alcohol and Cannabis during Labor.                    (article – 1930) (on page 2)  http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/94/15/1164-  a?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=cannabis&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=3360&res  ourcetype=HWCIT

 

Nonmutagenic action of cannabinoids in vitro                     (abst – 1978)

http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Doi=136789

 

Teratologic evaluation of synthetic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rabbits. (abst – 1979)                                              http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/473088

 

Acute effects of marihuana smoking on prolactin levels in human females. (abst – 1985)  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/232/1/220.abstract?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fullt ext=marihuana&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT

 

Effects of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids.              (abst – 1985)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=3929130&dopt=abstract plus

 

Tolerance to the luteinizing hormone and prolactin suppressive effects of delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol develops during chronic prepubertal treatment of female rats. (abst – 1986)

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/238/3/1034.abstract?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&ful ltext=cannabis&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=3760&resourcetype=HWCIT

 

A comparison of the effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and caffeine on birth size and subsequent growth                                                         (abst – 1987)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3657756

 

Poor and pregnant: perinatal ganja use in rural Jamaica.               (abst – 1989)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2785329

 

Marijuana Use in Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcome.               (abst – 1990)

https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-2007-999442

 

Five-year follow-up of rural Jamaican children whose mothers used marijuana during pregnancy. (abst – 1991)                               http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1957518

 

Prenatal marijuana use and neonatal outcome.                 (abst – 1991)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1886543

 

Analysis of Facial Shape in Children Gestationally Exposed to Marijuana, Alcohol, and/or Cocaine         (abst – 1992)  http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/89/1/67?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORM  AT=&fulltext=marihuana&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=960&resourcetype=HWCIT

 

Tobacco and marijuana use on offspring growth from birth through 3 years of age. (abst – 1992)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=1488035

&ordinalpos=10&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum

 

THREE THINGS MARIJUANA DOESN’T DO            (news – 1992)

http://www.ukcia.org/research/mjfaq2.php

 

Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Neonatal Outcomes in Jamaica : An Ethnographic Study           (full – 1994)                        http://www.druglibrary.org/Schaffer/hemp/medical/can-babies.htm

 

The preimplantation mouse embryo is a target for cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling. (full – 1995)                                     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC40821/

 

Prenatal exposure to marihuana and tobacco during infancy, early and middle childhood: effects and an attempt at synthesis.                                                        (abst – 1995)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7786162

 

Prenatal tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents: effects on offspring gestational age, growth, and morphology.                                           (abst – 1995)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7724314

 

Mortality Within the First 2 Years in Infants Exposed to Cocaine, Opiate, or Cannabinoid During Gestation                                            (abst – 1997)  http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/100/1/79?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORM  AT=&fulltext=cannabinoid&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=640&resourcetype=HWCIT

 

Maternal cannabis use and birth weight: a meta-analysis                 (abst – 1997)

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/carfax/cadd/1997/00000092/00000011/art00015

 

Use of Marijuana During Pregnancy                (book excerpt – 1997)

http://www.mothering.com/pregnancy-birth/use-of-marijuana-during-pregnancy

 

Dr. Melanie Dreher, reefer researcher               (interview – 1998)

http://www.cannabisculture.com/v2/articles/1404.html

 

Cannabis and pregnancy                 (full – 1999)

http://www.ukcia.org/research/CannabisAndPregnancy.php

 

Ganja mothers, ganja babies                  (news – 1999)

http://www.cannabisculture.com/articles/1422.html

 

Dysregulated Cannabinoid Signaling Disrupts Uterine Receptivity for Embryo Implantation        (full – 2001)                                  http://www.jbc.org/content/276/23/20523.full

 

Menstrual cramps, morning sickness and labour pain                 (anecdotal – 2001)

http://www.ukcia.org/medical/showmedicaltestimony.php?articleid=12

 

Contrasting effects of WIN 55212-2 on motility of the rat bladder and uterus. (full – 2002)                                    http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/16/7147.long

 

Cannabis Treatments in Obstetrics and Gynecology: A Historical Review (full – 2002)     http://www.cannabis-med.org/data/pdf/2002-03-04-1_0.pdf

 

Hyperemesis Gravidarum and Clinical Cannabis: To Eat or Not to Eat? (abst – 2002)                                     http://haworthpress.com/store/ArticleAbstract.asp?ID=18139

 

Maternal use of cannabis and pregnancy outcome.               (abst – 2002)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11843371

 

Comparison of meconium and neonatal hair analysis for detection of gestational exposure to drugs of abuse       (full – 2003)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1721515/pdf/v088p00F98.pdf

 

Effect of maternal under-nutrition on pup body weight and hypothalamic endocannabinoid levels.          (abst – 2003)                                            http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12678501

 

The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System: Importance for development and in pediatric disease          (full – 2004)                 http://www.nel.edu/pdf_/25_12/NEL251204A01_Fride_.pdf

 

Plasma Levels of the Endocannabinoid Anandamide in Women—A Potential Role in Pregnancy Maintenance and Labor?                                                            (full – 2004)  http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/89/11/5482?ijkey=5e8ec5690352ba9f6b990355b2ed69b1d2e5  8a5b

 

Aberrant cannabinoid signaling impairs oviductal transport of embryos.             (abst – 2004)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15378054

 

Use of anti-emetic herbs in pregnancy: women’s choices, and the question of safety and efficacy (abst – 2004)                           http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14744504

 

Cannabinoids and the human uterus during pregnancy               (abst – 2004)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14749627

 

The cannabinoid system and its importance in the perinatal period              (abst – 2005)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16266619

 

Determination of the prevalence of drug misuse by meconium analysis              (full – 2006)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2672735/?tool=pubmed

 

Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against ‘morning sickness’. (full – 2006)  http://safeaccess.ca/research/cannabis_nausea2006.pdf

 

Parental marijuana use and risk of childhood acute myeloid leukaemia: a report from the Children’s Cancer Group (United States and Canada).                                                      (abst – 2006)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16466429

 

Prenatal exposure to a cannabinoid receptor agonist does not affect sensorimotor gating in rats    (abst – 2006)                         http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16423346

 

More Pregnancy Highs Than Lows                (news – 2006)

http://www.thehempire.com/index.php/cannabis/news/more_pregnancy_highs_than_lows

 

Oily fish makes ‘babies brainier’                (news – 2006)  (hemp seed – at the end)

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4631006.stm

 

Dreher’s Jamaican Pregnancy Study                (news – 2006)

http://www.november.org/stayinfo/breaking06/DreherStudy.html

 

Cannabis Relieves Morning Sickness                 (news/forum post – 2006)  http://www.420magazine.com/forums/medical-marijuana-facts-information/79429-cannabis-relieves-  morning-sickness.html

 

The role of the endocannabinoid system in gametogenesis, implantation and early pregnancy        (full – 2007)  http://humupd.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/13/5/501?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&  fulltext=cannabinoid&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=960&resourcetype=HWCIT

 

Prevalence of gestational exposure to cannabis in a Mediterranean city by meconium analysis.      (abst – 2007)                               http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17953730

 

Breathe, Push, Puff? Pot Use and Pregnancy: A Review of the Literature           (news – 2007)

http://norml.org/index.cfm?Group_ID=8060

 

CB2 receptors in reproduction               (full – 2008)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219526/

 

Volumetric MRI Study of Brain in Children With Intrauterine Exposure to Cocaine, Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana                                                     (full – 2008)  http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/121/4/741?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&f  ulltext=marihuana&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=400&resourcetype=HWCIT

 

Loss of Cannabinoid Receptor CB1 Induces Preterm Birth              (full – 2008)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2553193/?tool=pmcentrez

 

Expression of the Endocannabinoid System in Human First Trimester Placenta and Its Role in Trophoblast Proliferation                                                       (full – 2008)  http://endo.endojournals.org/content/149/10/5052.full?sid=f5b14012-9fbe-4f10-890c-386313060cf8

 

Medical marijuana: a surprising solution to severe morning sickness                  (news – 2008)  http://current.com/items/89174292_medical-marijuana-a-surprising-solution-to-severe-morning-  sickness.htm

 

Maternal tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use during pregnancy and risk of adolescent psychotic symptoms in offspring.                                                      (full – 2009)  http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/195/4/294

 

Localisation and Function of the Endocannabinoid System in the Human Ovary (full – 2009)                                  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2640464/?tool=pmcentrez

 

Marijuana/ Cannabis use in Pregnancy – Dr. Melanie Dreher                (article – 2009)  http://patients4medicalmarijuana.wordpress.com/2009/12/20/marijuana-cannabis-use-in-pregnancy-dr-  melanie-dreher/

 

During pregnancy, recreational drug-using women stop taking ecstasy (3,4- methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) and reduce alcohol consumption, but continue to smoke tobacco and cannabis: initial findings from the Development and Infancy Study. (abst – 2009)        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19939863

 

Cannabinoid/Endocannabinoid signaling impact on early pregnancy events. (abst – 2009)                                   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21104387

 

Short communication: Urinary excretion of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)- tetrahydrocannabinol in a pregnant woman following heavy, chronic cannabis use. (letter – 2009)

http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/20040136/abstract/Short_communication:_Urinary

 

_excretion_of_11_nor_9_carboxy_Delta_9 vy_chronic_cannabis_use_


tetrahydrocannabinol_in_a_pregnant_woman_following_hea

 

 

CLAIM #7: MARIJUANA USE DURING PREGNANCY HARMS THE FETUS

(news – 2009)                http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_myth7.shtml

 

Maternal Marijuana use not Associated with Psychotic Symptoms , but Alcohol is (news – 2009)  http://ohiopatientsnetwork.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=85:marijuana       -not-   associated-with-psychotic-symptoms-but-alcohol-is&catid=3:newsflash

 

The Maternal Lifestyle Study: Sleep Problems in Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure      (full – 2010)                             http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917192/?tool=pubmed

 

Cannabinoids and Reproduction: A Lasting and Intriguing History (link to PDF– 2010)   http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/3/10/3275

 

From Fertilisation to Implantation in Mammalian Pregnancy—Modulation of Early Human Reproduction by the Endocannabinoid System                                                             (link to PDF – 2010)  http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/3/9/2910

 

A prospective study on intrauterine cannabis exposure and fetal blood flow. (abst – 2010)                                     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20451334

 

Tocolytic Effect of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice Model of Lipopolysaccharide— Induced Preterm Delivery: Role of Nitric Oxide                                                           (abst – 2010)  http://rsx.sagepub.com/content/17/4/391.abstract

 

A common variation in the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CNR1) gene is associated with pre- eclampsia in the Central European population.                                                       (abst – 2010)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21129839

 

Characteristics of pregnant illicit drug users and associations between cannabis use and perinatal outcome in a population-based study                                                    (abst – 2010)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20171023

 

Pregnant Women Smoking Pot Could Reduce Infant Mortality                 (news – 2010)

http://www.opposingviews.com/i/pregnant-women-smoking-pot-could-reduce-infant-mortality

 

Pregnant women turning to cannabis for morning sickness relief risk prosecution

 

(news – 2010)

 http://stash.norml.org/pregnant-women-turning-to-cannabis-for-morning-sickness-relief-risk-prosecution

 

Scientific Opinion on the safety of hemp (Cannabis genus) for use as animal feed (full – 2011) (deceptive title)

http://www.hanf-info.ch/info/en/IMG/pdf/EIHA-11-05-31_EIHA-Statement_on_THC_in_feed.pdf

 

Sex difference in cell proliferation in developing rat amygdala mediated by endocannabinoids has implications for social behavior                                                                                (full – 2011)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2996668/?tool=pubmed

 

Prenatal tobacco, marijuana, stimulant, and opiate exposure: outcomes and practice implications.   (full – 2011)                                                       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3188826/?tool=pubmed

 

Commentary: Functional Neuronal CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors in the CNS. (full – 2011)                                  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3137183/?tool=pubmed

 

Medical Marijuana: Can Pot Help Pregnant Women With Vomiting and Nausea? (article – 2011)

http://patients4medicalmarijuana.wordpress.com/2011/01/13/pregnancy-and-medical-marijuana-can-pot-  help-pregnant-women-with-vomiting-and-nausea/

 

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: an underreported entity causing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.                                                     (abst – 2011)       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21170540

 

Cocaine, Opiate, and Cannabinoid Infant Mortality Study              (news – 2011)

http://www.theweedstreetjournal.com/cocaine-opiate-cannabinoid-infant-mortality-study/

 

Pharmacological characterization of the peripheral FAAH inhibitor URB937 in female rodents: interaction with the Abcg2 transporter in the blood-placenta barrier

(full – 2012)                 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02098.x/full

 

Acetaminophen, pesticide, and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites, anandamide, and fatty acids in deciduous molars: potential biomarkers of perinatal exposure.                                              (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22805989

 

Ectopic pregnancy is associated with high anandamide levels and aberrant expression of FAAH and CB1 in fallopian tubes.                                                (abst – 2012)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22701012?dopt=Abstract

 

Uncovering a role for endocannabinoid signaling in autophagy in preimplantation mouse embryos            (abst – 2012)                    http://molehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/2/93.abstract

 

Cannabinoid modulation of mother-infant interaction: is it just about milk? (abst – 2012)

http://www.degruyter.com/abstract/j/revneuro.2012.23.issue-5-6/revneuro-2012-0074/revneuro-2012-  0074.xml?rskey=wRYgJd&result=1&q=cannabinoid

 

Researchers study neuroprotective properties in cannabis                     (news – 2012)

http://www.foxnews.com/health/2012/03/20/researchers-study-neuroprotective-properties-in-cannabis/

 

Cannnabinoids, Breast Milk, and Development                  (news – 2012)

http://www.examiner.com/article/cannnabinoids-breast-milk-and-development

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