Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol: Metabolism and Disposition in Long-term Marihuana Smokers.     (abst – 1971)                                   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5087483


Confirmation of the Presence of 11-Hydroxy-r 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Urine of Marijuana Smokers         (full – 1972)  http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/62/10/1394?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fullt   ext=cannabis&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=3760&resourcetype=HWCIT


Detection of cannabis products in urine by radioimmunoassay.                   (full -1975)



Homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for cannabinoids in urine.                    (full – 1978)











Laboratory verification of “heavy” and “light” users of cannabis             (abst – 1981)



Persistence of Urinary Marijuana Levels After Supervised Abstinence.               (abst – 1982)



Passive inhalation of marihuana smoke and urinary excretion of cannabinoids (abst – 1983)                                    http://www.nature.com/clpt/journal/v34/n1/abs/clpt1983125a.html


Excretion patterns of cannabinoid metabolites after last use in a group of chronic users (full – 1985)                                  http://www.nature.com/clpt/journal/v38/n5/pdf/clpt1985226a.pdf


Contact highs and urinary cannabinoid excretion after passive exposure to

marijuana smoke             (full – 1986)    http://www.nature.com/clpt/journal/v40/n3/pdf/clpt1986171a.pdf


Cannabinoid intake by passive smoking              (abst – 1987)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=3551865&dopt=abstract  plus


Marijuana-Laced Brownies: Behavioral Effects, Physiologic Effects, and Urinalysis in Humans Following Ingestion                                                             (abst – 1988)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3184885


Cross-reactivity of selected compounds in the Abbott TDx cannabinoid assay. (abst– 1990)                                  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2175818


High urinary cannabinoids from a hashish body packer.              (abst – 1993)



Effect of freezing on the concentration of drugs of abuse in urine.               (abst – 1993)



Increased detection of marijuana use with a 50 micrograms/L urine screening cutoff. (full – 1994)                                  http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/reprint/40/11/2114


Hemp oil ingestion causes positive urine tests for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid           (full – 1997)  http://www.druglibrary.org/crl/drugtesting/Constantino%20et.al%2097%20Hemp%20Oil%20JAnToxicol.p  df


A procedure to overcome interferences caused by the adulterant “Klear” in the GC-MS analysis of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-COOH.                                                       (full – 1997)  http://jat.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/3/240.long


Excretion of Cannabinoids in Urine After Ingestion of Cannabis Seed Oil.           (full – 1997)



Marijuana-positive urine test results from consumption of hemp seeds in food products.









(abst – 1997)                http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9323528


Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a delta9- THCCOOH to creatinine ratio study.                                                       (abst – 1999)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10517562


Adulteration of urine by “Urine Luck”.                (full – 1999)



Potassium nitrite reaction with 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine in relation to the drug screening analysis                                                             (abst – 1999)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10486947?ordinalpos=102&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.P   ubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum


Concentration of Marijuana Metabolites in the Urine After Ingestion of Hemp Seed Tea. (abst – 1999)                                      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10390703

Effects of pyridinium chlorochromate adulterant (urine luck) on testing for drugs of abuse and a method for quantitative detection of chromium (VI) in urine.                                          (full – 2000)  http://jat.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/4/233.long


Cannabinoid mimics in chocolate utilized as an argument in court               (abst – 2000)



Evaluating the impact of hemp food consumption on workplace drug tests. (abst – 2001)                                     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11765026


Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin as a marker for the ingestion of marijuana versus Marinol: results of a clinical study                                                      (abst – 2001)  http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/11599601/abstract/


Effects of Stealth adulterant on immunoassay testing for drugs of abuse.             (full – 2002)



Effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid in urine.   (abst – 2002)                       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12423000


Monitoring urinary excretion of cannabinoids by fluorescence-polarization immunoassay: a cannabinoid-to-creatinine ratio study.                                            (abst – 2002)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12451292


A procedure for the detection of Stealth adulterant in urine samples.             (abst – 2002)



Effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid in urine.   (abst – 2002)                         http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12423000


Nursing Home Residents Test Positive For Marijuana               (news – 2002)











Urinary Cannabinoid Detection Times after Controlled Oral Administration of {Delta}9- Tetrahydrocannabinol to Humans                                                        (full – 2003)  http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/49/7/1114


Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a Delta9- THC-COOH to creatinine ratio study #2.                                                          (abst – 2003)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12742686


Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Study III. A Delta9-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio study.                                                  (abst – 2003)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14609657


Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11- hydroxy-delta9-THC: cannabinoid metabolites to creatinine ratio study IV.

(abst – 2004)                http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15240035


Passive Inhalation of Cannabis Smoke.               (abst – 2004)



Papain: a novel urine adulterant.                        (abst – 2005)



Detection time of regular THC use in urine shorter than often assumed              (abst – 2006)



The effects of adulterants and selected ingested compounds on drugs-of-abuse testing in urine.   (full – 2007)                     http://ajcp.ascpjournals.org/content/128/3/491.long


Simultaneous GC–EI-MS Determination of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-Hydroxy-Δ9- Tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-nor-9-Carboxy-Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Human Urine Following Tandem Enzyme-Alkaline Hydrolysis  (full – 2007)  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2689549&tool=pmcentrez


Urine drug test interpretation: what do physicians know?             (abst – 2007)



Family physicians’ proficiency in urine drug test interpretation.              (abst – 2007)



Toxicity From the Use of Niacin to Beat Urine Drug Screening                (abst – 2007)



Urine Drug Screening: Practical Guide for Clinicians               (full – 2008)  http://mayoclinproc.highwire.org/content/83/1/66.full?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fullte  xt=cannabinoid&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=1520&resourcetype=HWCIT









Urinary elimination of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannnabinol in cannabis users during continuously monitored abstinence.                                                  (full – 2008)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2587336/?tool=pubmed


Interpreting Urine Cannabinoid Results Renewed vs Residual                (full – 2009)  http://www.medical.siemens.com/siemens/en_GLOBAL/gg_diag_FBAs/files/Drug_Testing/Education/070  1520-UC1_Cannabinoid_Issues_FINAL.pdf


Do Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations indicate recent use in chronic cannabis users?   (full – 2009)



Extended urinary Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol excretion in chronic cannabis users precludes use as a biomarker of new drug exposure.                                                                 (full – 2009)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2763020/?tool=pubmed


Short communication: Urinary excretion of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)- tetrahydrocannabinol in a pregnant woman following heavy, chronic cannabis use. (letter – 2009)

http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/20040136/abstract/Short_communication:_Urinar       y


_excretion_of_11_nor_9_carboxy_Delta_9 vy_chronic_cannabis_use_




Identifying New Cannabis Use with Urine Creatinine-Normalized THCCOOH Concentrations and Time Intervals Between Specimen Collections.                                                                        (abst – 2009)  http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/19470219/abstract/Identifying_New_Cannabis_Us  e_with_Urine_Creatinine_Normalized_THCCOOH_Concentrations_and_Time_Intervals_Between_Speci  men_Collections_


Urinary toxicological screening: Analytical interference between niflumic acid and cannabis.       (abst – 2009)  http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/19716686/abstract/%5BUrinary_toxicological_scre ening:_Analytical_interference_between_niflumic_acid_and_cannabis_%5D


Evaluation of a Human On-site Urine Multidrug Test for Emergency Use With Dogs (abst – 2009)  http://www.jaaha.org/cgi/content/abstract/45/2/59?maxtoshow=&hits=80&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=  cannabis&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=3200&resourcetype=HWCIT


Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke–is it detectable?               (abst – 2009)



Urine Drug Screening: A Valuable Office Procedure                (full – 2010)



Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin testing may not have the sensitivity to detect marijuana use among individuals ingesting dronabinol.                                                    (full – 2010)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2815025/?tool=pubmed


Interpreting Urine Cannabinoid Results Renewed vs Residual           (full – 2010)











Testing for cannabis in the work-place: a review of the evidence.               (abst – 2010)



Quantitation of Total 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Urine and Blood Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).                                             (abst – 2010)  http://marijuana.researchtoday.net/archive/7/1/2746.htm


Differentiating new cannabis use from residual urinary cannabinoid excretion in chronic, daily cannabis users.                                                (abst – 2010)  http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/21134021/abstract/Differentiating_new_cannabis_  use_from_residual_urinary_cannabinoid_excretion_in_chronic_daily_cannabis_users_


Detection of cannabigerol and its presumptive metabolite in human urine after Cannabis consumption.    (abst – 2010)                            http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20614687


Screening for the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and its major metabolites in human doping controls.   (abst – 2010)                               http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20872894


Now, There’s a Test for That — Norchem’s “Fake Marijuana” Test Reveals Significantly Increased Abuse of Spice/K2                                              (news – 2010)

http://www.marketwire.com/press-release/Now-Theres-Test-That-Norchems-Fake-Marijuana-Test-  Reveals-Significantly-Increased-Abuse-1356247.htm


The current status of community drug testing via the analysis of drugs and drug metabolites in sewage    (link to PDF– 2011)  http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=abstract&id=919610&q1=cannabinoid&f1=all&b1=or&q2=cannabis&f2=a ll&recNo=14&uiLanguage=en


A method for CP 47, 497 a synthetic non-traditional cannabinoid in human urine using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.                                                   (abst – 2011)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21233028


Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of urine specimens for K2 (JWH-018) metabolites.                                                    (abst– 2011)     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21871158


Zinc Reduces the Detection of Cocaine, Methamphetamine, and THC by ELISA Urine Testing. (abst – 2011)   We need 8 to 11 mg of zinc daily; over 40 mg/day can cause zinc poisoning.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21740689


Concentrations of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9- carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in blood and urine after passive exposure to Cannabis smoke in a coffee shop.         (abst – 2011)    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20465865


Quantitative measurement of JWH-018 and JWH-073 metabolites excreted in human urine.        (abst – 2011)                         http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21506519









Differentiating new cannabis use from residual urinary cannabinoid excretion in chronic, daily cannabis users.                                                (abst – 2011)       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21134021


Efavirenz interference in urine screening immunoassays for tetrahydrocannabinol. (abst – 2011)                                       http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22067092


NMS Labs & Cerilliant Announce Identification Of Major Metabolite Of The Synthetic Cannabinoid JWH-073                                                (news – 2011)    http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/226597.php


What Causes False Positives in Marijuana Drug Testing?                 (news – 2011)  http://www.livestrong.com/article/192876-what-causes-false-positives-in-marijuana-drug-  testing/#ixzz21IdMdpfG


Characterization of In Vitro Metabolites of CP 47,497, a Synthetic Cannabinoid, in Human Liver Microsomes by LC-MS/MS.                                                                (full – 2012)  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02261.x/full


Impact of Lowering Confirmatory Test Cutoff Value in Pre-Enlistment Urine Cannabinoids Screening: About Five Years’ Experience in the French Gendarmerie. (abst – 2012)           http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22933660


Comparison of Random and Postaccident Urine Drug Tests in Southern Indiana Coal Miners.     (abst – 2012)                            http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22895464


Unexpected interference of baby wash products with a cannabinoid (THC) immunoassay. (abst – 2012)                                    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22465236


Unresolved Discrepancies between Cannabinoid Test Results for Infant Urine (abst – 2012)                                  http://www.clinchem.org/content/58/9/1364.short?rss=1


Strange Reason for Baby’s Positive Pot Test Found              (news – 2012)



Baby Soaps and Shampoos Trigger Positive Marijuana Tests                (news – 2012)  http://healthland.time.com/2012/06/19/baby-soaps-and-shampoos-trigger-positive-marijuana-   tests/#ixzz21IE9aajD


Cannnabinoids, Breast Milk, and Development            (news – 2012)



Broncos Linebacker Failed Two Drug Tests By Providing ‘Non-Human Urine’ (news – 2012)

http://www.thepostgame.com/blog/dish/201207/broncos-linebacker-failed-two-drug-tests-providing-non-  human-urine


Study: Imposition Of Per Se Limits For Drugs Don’t Reduce Traffic Deaths (news – 2013)


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